Line of latitude which divided North and South Korea.
Document written by Martin Luther detailing what he believed to be the problems in the medieval Church.
(750 - 1258) Ruling family of the Islamic Empire during its golden age. This dynasty is responsible for many achievements
The first patriarch in the Bible. Abraham was asked by God to sacrifice his son, Isaac, and was rewarded for being prepared to do so. He is considered by Jewish people as the father of the Israelites through his son Isaac, and by Muslims as the father of Arab peoples through his son Ishmael.
A political system in which a country is ruled by a monarch, who has absolute control.
Rain that contains pollutants due to the burning of fossil fuels. It is damaging to the environment.
Chinese method of treating disorders by inserting needles into the skin. This is to help with the flow of energy that is thought to be blocked.
A change made to survive an environment or to overcome a disadvantage.
9. African National Congress
A group formed in protest of the policy of Apartheid in South Africa. It was eventually outlawed due to their violent tactics, and Nelson Mandela, one of its leaders, was imprisoned for over thirty years.
10. African Trading Kingdoms
Three African kingdoms, Ghana, Mali, and Songhai that were important in the trans-Sahara trade of gold form the west coast of Africa to North Africa and the Middle East. Their trade provided enough wealth to create the conditions necessary for cultural and intellectual achievement.
Dutch descended colonist living in South Africa. Also called Boers.
Time period during the 15th and 16th centuries when Europeans searched for new sources of wealth and for easier trade routes to China and India. Resulted in the discovery of North and South America by the Europeans.
Term given to describe the Enlightenment.
Term given to describe the Renaissance.
A change in farming methods that allowed for a greater production of food. This revolution was fueled by the use of new farming technology such as the seed drill and improved fertilizers. The result of this revolution was a population explosion due to the higher availability of food. It was one of the causes of the Industrial Revolution.
The cultivating of land, producing of crops, and raising of livestock for human consumption.
In Hinduism, it is the principal of non violence against all living things.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. A disease of the human immune system caused by the HIV retrovirus.
(1542-1605) Emperor of the Mughal Empire in India. He is considered to be their greatest ruler. He is responsible for the expansion of his empire, the stability his administration gave to it, and the increasing of trade and cultural diffusion.
(356 BCE-323 BCE) He conquered most of the ancient world from Asia Minor to Egypt and India, which began the Hellenistic culture which was a blending of Greek, Persian, Indian, and Egyptian influences.
A branch of mathematics pioneered by Islamic mathematician al-Khwarizimi in which letters are used to represent unknown numbers to generalize arithmetic.
Islamic mathematician who pioneered the study of algebra. His textbook on the subject became a standard in European universities for centuries.
Alliance of Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States, and France during World War II.
Islamic terrorist organization led by Osama bin Laden. They are responsible for numerous terrorist attacks, including the destruction of the World Trade Center buildings in New York City.
(1918-1981) President of Egypt between 1970 and 1981. He was assassinated by Islamic fundamentalists for making peace with Israel.
Political revolution in the British North American Colonies starting in 1776 that removed the colonies from Great Britain's control, and established an independent nation know as the United States of America.
(1925?- ) President of Uganda from 1971 to 1979. His brutal regime resulted in the death of hundreds of thousands of people, as well as the near total ruin of Uganda. He was overthrown and exiled to Saudi Arabia in 1979.
April 3rd of 1919. British soldiers killed close to 400 unarmed Indian men, women, and children, and wounded 1,100 more. People had gathered in the center of town to protest British occupation of their country, and to demand equality. This was a turning point in British domination of India. Independence movements became very popular and eventually forced India's independence.
Collection of moral and social teachings of Confucius, including the concept of the Five Relationships.
The branch of science that studies the physical structure of living organisms.
Worship given to deceased relatives who are believed to be closer to the Gods, and therefore able to grant favors.
The oldest known type of belief system in the world. It is still practiced in a variety of forms in many traditional societies. Animists practice nature worship. They believe that everything in the universe has a spirit. This is exemplified by the practices of the Plains Indians in North America who would praise the spirit of the buffalo that they killed for giving its life to them so that they might survive. Animists also believed that ancestors watch over the living from the spirit world. This belief resulted in ancestor worship as a means of communicating with and showing respect to ancestors.
A substance that kills bacteria in the human body. It is used to prevent or treat various illnesses.
The hatred of people of Jewish descent.
An agent that helps prevent or reduce infection in wounds.
A political policy in South Africa where black South Africans could only live in certain areas, were required to use separate trains, beaches, restaurants, and schools, and could not enter into an interracial marriage.
The policy of pacifying an aggressive nation in the hopes of avoiding further conflict.
Above ground structures used to carry water long distances. Built by the ancient Romans.
A language that is the official language of several countries of North Africa and the Middle East, as well as the religion of Islam.
A written number system created during the Gupta golden age in India, then adopted by the Islamic Empire before spreading further. Used throughout western civilization today.
Land that is able to support the growing of crops.
(1929- ) President of the Palestine National Authority and Chairman of the Palestinian Liberation Organization. Considered by many to be a terrorist, he has in recent years been accepted as the legitimate authority to speak for the Palestinians. His goals is to create a homeland for the displaced Palestinians.
A curved structure that shapes the edge of an open space, such as, a doorway, a window.
(287-212 BCE) Greek mathematician and inventor. He wrote works on plane and solid geometry, arithmetic, and mechanics. He is best known for the lever and pulley.
A group or chain of islands.
A person who designs buildings.
(310?-250? BCE) Greek scientist who first stated that the Earth revolved around the Sun, and rotated on its axis.
A person who is skilled at a craft, such as weaving, or woodcarving.
Nomadic warriors from Central Asia who migrated into India around 1500 BCE. They are responsible for many aspects of current Indian culture including their language, sacred texts called the Vedas, and a system of government that later evolved into the caste system.
Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, and South Korea. These nations have experienced rapid economic growth and prosperity due to industrialization, and were aligned both politically, and economically with the West throughout the Cold War
(?-232 BCE) King of the Maurya dynasty. He ruled nearly the entire subcontinent of India. He also was instrumental in the spread of Buddhism after his conversion.
The killing of a political leader or other public figure.
54. Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Multinational organization that cooperates economically by lowering trade barriers, such as, tariffs, to encourage commerce between member nations.
A device used to determine latitude by observing the altitude and position of the sun or other start or planet.
A person who specializes in the study of astronomical bodies.
Dam across the Nile River in Egypt. Created Lake Nassar and helps to create more farmland. Built between 1960 and 1970.
58. Ataturk, Mustafa Kemal
(1881-1938) Nationalist leader of Turkey who is responsible for modernizing and westernizing his country after World War I. This enabled Turkey to resist imperialist attempts at takeover by various European powers.
In Hinduism, the human soul.
(63 BCE - 14 CE) First emperor of Rome (27 BCE - 14 CE) He restored order and prosperity to the Empire after nearly a century of turmoil. Grandnephew to Julius Caesar.
61. Austro-Hungarian Empire
Also known as Austria-Hungary, or the Hapsburg Empire, as it was ruled by the Habsburg monarchy from 1867 to 1918. Austria-Hungary extended over most of central Europe. It was composed the modern day countries of Austria, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic, as well as parts of present-day Poland, Romania, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
Alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II.
(1900?-1989) Islamic religious leader who led a fundamentalist revolution in Iran in 1979. Ruled until 1989.
A Mesoamerican civilization of Mexico who created a strong empire that flourished between the 14th and 15th century. The arrival of Hernando Cortez and the Spanish Conquistadores ended their empire.
A political policy in which countries attempt to preserve peace by keeping an equal military and economic status.
A promise made by British Prime Minister Balfour to create a homeland for the Jewish people.
A business that exchanges currencies, makes loans, and keeps the money of individual depositors.
(1689-1755) Enlightenment thinker from France who wrote a book called, The Spirit of the Laws in 1748. In his book, Montesquieu describes what he considers to be the best government. He states that government should divide itself according to its powers, creating a Judicial, Legislative, and Executive branch. Montesquieu explained that under this system each branch would Check and Balance the others, which would help protect the people's liberty.
The exchange of goods or services for other goods or services.
(1901-1973) Cuban president from 1940 to 1944 and 1952 to 1959. He was responsible for some reforms in the country before leaving office for the first time. Later, he overthrew the legitimate government and ruled as a dictator until he was forced from office by Fidel Castro.
The massive air war against Great Britain by the Nazi war machine in Germany. Nearly nightly bombings occurred between summer of 1940 and summer of 1941 before German withdrew. Great Britain fought alone during this year and never gave up.
An unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in 1961, which was sponsored by the United States. Its purpose was to overthrow Cuban dictator Fidel Castro.
Date designation meaning Before Common Era, or more than two thousand years ago.
74. Bell, Alexander Graham
(1847-1922) American inventor of the telephone.
(1886-1973) First Prime Minister of Israel.
A re-supply operation to the city of Berlin that lasted 11 months during 1948-49 when the Soviet Union attempted to close off the city.
(1884-1885) During European Imperialism, various European leaders met in Berlin, Germany to discuss plans for dividing Africa peacefully. These leaders had little regard for African independence, and had no representation for native Africans. This began the process of imperializing Africa.
A wall built in 1961 dividing Soviet controlled East Berlin from the democratic West Berlin. It was destroyed when communism ended in 1990.
(1813-98) Inventor who developed a more cost efficient process for making steel.
A Hindu holy book where the god Krishna teaches the importance of selflessness, performing religious duties, and of devotion to God.
A document purchased from a bank that allowed a person to travel without having to carry large amounts of money. Worked like a modern check.
Serbian nationalist/terrorist group responsible for the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand which resulted in the start of World War I.
German word meaning lightning war. It was a German army tactic during World War II which called for quick moving, hard hitting drives into enemy territory.
A system of printing where characters are carved onto a wooden block. The block is then inked and pressed onto a sheet of paper.
Blood and Iron policy of Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck to unify all of Germany under Prussian control and build and expand it into a great empire. Very successful.
(1899-1902) War between Great Britain and the Boers in South Africa over control of rich mining country. Great Britain won and created the Union of South Africa comprised of all the South African colonies.
Dutch descended colonist living in South Africa. Also called Afrikaners.
(1783-1830) Latin American revolutionary responsible for the ousting of Spain from much of South America during the 19th century. He is considered to be the most important figure in the fight for Latin American independence.
Early name of communists during the Russian Revolution of 1917.
(1769-1821) Emperor of the French. Responsible for many French Revolution reforms as well as conquering most of Europe. He was defeated at Waterloo, and died several years later on the island of Saint Helena.
Term given to the middle class people in society.
(1900) A rebellion by the people of China to end foreign domination.
Hindu god called the Creator. Brahma is the first member of the triad that includes Vishnu the Preserver and Shiva the Destroyer.
In Hinduism, Brahman is the name given to the oneness of the universe.
(1906-1982) Leader of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982. During his control of the Soviet Union, relations with the West, as well as the Soviet economy, experienced a long period of stagnation.
97. British East India Company
A joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.
An infectious disease transmitted by fleas. It is characterized by fever, chills, and the formation of swellings. Also known as the Black Plague or Black Death.
Hindu for "enlightened one." See also Siddhartha Gautama.
Buddhism developed in India, and is based on many of the core concepts of Hinduism.. Buddhists believe in an endless cycle of reincarnation, or samsara, which is similar to beliefs of Hinduism. However, Buddhists do not believe that deities are responsible for the phenomenon. In addition, the Caste System is rejected by Buddhists who believe instead that one is reincarnated until they can achieve nirvana, best described as spiritual enlightenment.
The administration portion of the government.
Code of conduct for Samurai and nobles during Japanese feudalism.
(330-1453) The eastern half of the Roman Empire, which survived after the fall of the Western Empire at the end of the 5th century C.E. Its capital was Constantinople, named after the Emperor Constantine.
Collection of people who run various departments in government. Usually report to the chief executive, such as the prime Minister, or the President.
(100-44 BCE), Roman general and statesman. He is responsible for setting up the imperial system in Rome which placed his grandnephew, Augustus, on the throne.
A system for keeping track of time.
In Islam, the successor to the Prophet Mohammed.
A form of fine handwriting.
(1509-1564) Theologian and church reformer who developed a form of Protestantism during the Reformation. His church is known for the idea of predestination, which states certain people are predestined for heaven.
A weapon which uses an iron ball as a projectile and gunpowder as the blasting agent.
A book written by Ibn Sina, a famous Islamic physician, which was an encyclopedia of Greek, Arabic, and his own knowledge of medicine. This book became the standard medical text in Europe for over five hundred years.
Southern tip of the African continent.
Money that is used for investment.
An economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and distribution of goods. Also promotes a free market regulated by supply and demand.
A Portuguese ship that had a large cargo area and used two orthree masts.
(1585-1642) French Cardinal and politician responsible for instituting absolutist practices in France.
The skill of making maps.
An economic system based on the exportation of certain crops such as sugar, cotton, and coffee.
A rigid social class system in Hinduism.
(1926?- ) Leader of the Cuban Revolution and communist dictator of Cuba. He is responsible for making Cuba a socialist country which has often been at odds with the United States. Notably, the bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis.
An enlightened despot who ruled over Russia. She is responsible for many positive changes in Russia, as well as securing the country a warm water port.
(1810-61) Prime Minister of Sardinia, a large Italian State. He formed alliances with other foreign powers to help end Austria's and Spain's control. Instrumental in the unification of Italy.
Date designation meaning Common Era, or the last two thousand years of history.
The suppression information considered offensive or a threat to security.
127. centralized government
A government which controls all aspects of society from a central location or through a central system.
128. Chamberlain, Neville
(1869-1940) Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1937 to 1940. He is responsible for the policy of appeasement with Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany.
Prime Minister, or chief executive of a country or nation state.
A system in government described by Baron de Montesquieu where legislative, judicial, and executive power is shared among the different branches to provide protection against abuses of power.
The science dealing with the structure, composition, properties, and reactive characteristics of substances.
132. Chernobyl Nuclear Plant Accident
(1986) This accident release large amounts of radiation that not only affected the immediate area, (Ukraine,) but also was carried on strong winds across many countries in Europe. The effects of this accident have to date been an increase in cancer victims, numerous birth defects, and the destruction of many acres of good land.
floating islands of land anchored to a lake bottom used for agriculture. This technique was used by the Aztecs.
134. Chinese Communist Revolution
A political revolution in China led by Mao Zedong. After several years of fighting the Kuomintang, the communists won control of the country in 1949.
Code of conduct for knight and nobles during European feudalism.
136. chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)
A gas containing carbon, hydrogen, chlorine, and fluorine. It is used in refrigerators and aerosol sprays. CFCs are reputed to be damaging to the Earth's protective ozone layer.
(8-4 BCE- 29? CE) Founder of Christianity. Considered by Christians to be the son of God and the Messiah. He is the central figure in the Christian Religion.