Essay On Pakistan Atomic Power In Urdu

The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC; Urdu: ادارہ جوہری توانائی پاکستان‬) is an independentgovernmental authority and a scientific research institution, concerned with research and development of nuclear power, promotion of nuclear science, energy conservation and the peaceful usage of nuclear technology.[1][2]

Since its establishment in 1956, the PAEC has overseen the extensive development of nuclear infrastructure to support the economical uplift of Pakistan by founding institutions that focus on development on food irradiation and on nuclear medicine radiation therapy for cancer treatment.[3][4] The PAEC organizes conferences and directs research at the country's leading universities.[5] Since the 1960s, the PAEC is also a scientific research partner and sponsor of CERN, where Pakistani scientists have contributed to developing particle accelerators and research on high-energy physics.[6] PAEC scientists regularly pay visits to CERN while taking part in projects led by CERN.[7]

In 2001, the PAEC was integrated with the National Command Authority which is now under Prime MinisterShahid Khaqan Abbasi.[8]

Overview[edit]

Early history[edit]

Main articles: Pakistan and weapons of mass destruction, Project-706, Chagai-I, and Chagai-II

Following the partition of British Indian Empire by the United Kingdom in 1947, Pakistan emerged as a Muslim-dominated state.[9] The turbulent nature of its emergence critically influenced the scientific development of the country.[9]

The establishment of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) in 1951 began Pakistan's research on physical sciences.[10] In 1953, U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower announced the Atoms for Peace program, and of which Pakistan became its earliest partner.[11] Research at PAEC initially followed a strict non-weapon policy issued by then-Foreign Minister Sir Sir Zafar-ulla Khan.[11] In 1955, the government established a committee of scientists to prepare nuclear energy plans and build an industrial nuclear infrastructure throughout the country.[12] As the Energy Council Act went into full effect, Prime minister Huseyn Suhrawardy established the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) in March 1956.[11] Its first chair was Nazir Ahmad – an experimental physicist.[11] Other members of the PAEC included Technical member Salimuzzaman Siddiqui, an organic chemist at the Karachi University, and Raziuddin Siddiqui, a mathematical physicist at the same university.[11] Together, they both took charge of the research and development directorates of the commission.[12] In 1958, Abdus Salam of the Punjab University also joined the commission, along with Munir Ahmad Khan who initially lobbied for acquiring a pool-type reactor from the United States.[12]

In 1958, PAEC Chairman Nazir Ahmad proposed to the Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation to build a heavy water production facility with production capacity of 50 kg of heavy water per day at Multan, but this proposal was not acted on.[11] In 1960, I.H. Usmani was elevated as PAEC's second chair with the transfer of Nazir Ahmad at the Federal Bureau of Statistics.[11] The reactor was built in 1962, financed by local fertilizer companies.[13] In 1964, PAEC established its first research institute, the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), at Nilore, and began negotiation for country's first commercial nuclear power plant to be built in Karachi.[11] In 1965, the PAEC reached an agreement with Canadian General Electric to build a CANDU reactor in Karachi.[11] Financial investment for the nuclear power plant in Karachi was provided by the Economic Coordination Committee, and Edward Durell Stone was commissioned to oversee the architectural design of PINSTECH.[11] From 1965–71, the PAEC sent 600 scientists abroad for training in nuclear sciences.[11] in 1969, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, agreed to supply a small scale nuclear reprocessing plant, with the capacity to extract 360 grams of plutonium per year.[11] In 1973, the PAEC announced the discovery of large uranium deposits in Punjab.[11]

After India's decisive victory in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Pakistan retracted its non-weapon policy and the research and development of nuclear weapons began in 1972.[11] PAEC's senior nuclear engineerMunir Ahmad Khan, who threw himself with full rigor for this task, was named as PAEC's third chair by Prime MinisterZulfikar Ali Bhutto.[14] Work began on ingenious development of the nuclear fuel cycle infrastructure and nuclear weapons research in the 1970s.[15] Key research took place at PINSTECH, where scientists worked on weapon designs and eventual nuclear weapons testing.[16] The PAEC expanded the crash program with various laboratories, facilities, and directorates researching on developing and testing materials and components for bomb designs, whilst it engineered plants and funded facilities for production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium.[16] In 1976, the possible test sites were decided by the PAEC and construction on test sites were completed in 1979.[16] In 1983, PAEC's efforts reached to a milestone when it had conducted a first subcritical test on a weapon design; such testing continued until the early 1990s under codename: Kirana-I.[16]

Following nuclear tests by India earlier in the month, on 28 May 1998, PAEC led the final preparations and conducted Pakistan's first nuclear tests (Codename: Chagai-I), which was followed by Chagai-II in Kharan Desert on 30 May 1998. In 2001, the PAEC's research was focused back to civilian and peaceful research with the establishment of the National Command Authority and the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority.[17]

Research and education[edit]

Main articles: Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology; Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology; and Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Oncology and Radiotherapy

Since its establishment in 1956, the PAEC provided a conspicuous example of benefit of the atomic-age technologies for the advancement of agriculture, engineering, biology, and medicine.[18][19] In 1960, the PAEC established its first nuclear medicines center for Cancer treatment at the Jinnah Medical College of the University of Karachi; the second Medical Isotope Institute was established at the Mayo Hospital of the King Edward Medical University in Lahore.[20] Physicians and medical researchers were provided with facilities for cancer diagnose and treatment by the PAEC's funding.[20]

In 1960, the PAEC established its regional atomic research center in Lahore, and a metallurgy center in Karachi in 1963.[21] Another energy center was located in Dhaka where many scientists were educated.[21] In 1967, the PAEC founded the Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences which became one of the primary technical universities of the country. Many of the PAEC's scientists and engineers served in its faculty.[21] The PAEC supports its university-level physics program at the Government College University where it awards fellowships to the students. The PAEC continues to promotes its program as "peaceful uses of atomic energy commenced for the benefit the scientific community as well as public."[22]

About its promotion of education, senior scientist, Ishfaq Ahmad quoted: "the PAEC was responsible to send more than 600 scientists to the abroad.[11] As of present, PAEC maintains its prestigious image, and is now noted as one of the largest science and technology institution of the country.[23] The PAEC supports research activities and learning programs at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), of which PAEC is also its organizer.[24] Since 1974, the PAEC has been a key organizer and sponsor of the International Nathiagali Summer College on Physics and Contemporary Needs conference each and every year where scientists from all over the world are delegated to the country.[25] The science conference in Nathiagali provides the dissemination of the knowledge advancement in physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, mathematics, computer science, logic, and philosophy.[25]

As the emphasis shifted towards concerns for the national security interests, the PAEC's important projects were also initiated in this area.[17] Many of the notable scientists with international prestige have worked and affiliated with the PAEC.[17] With the establishment of Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) and National Command Authority, the PAEC focused has not shifted back to utilization of nuclear power on peaceful and industrial usage as well as continued the research in nuclear developments in terms of both peaceful and scientific use.[23]

Studies on expansion of nuclear power[edit]

Main article: Nuclear power in Pakistan

As of current, the PAEC is held responsible for design preparation and proper operational function of the commercial nuclear power plants. The PAEC provides lobby at the governmental level for the safe usage of the nuclear power sources; though the safety regulations and protections of the nuclear power facilities are managed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA). Providing the policy guidance to the government, PAEC's studies envisions setting up power plants energy production with a capacity of ~8800MW by 2030.[26]

Under this policy, the KANUPP power plants and CHASHNUPP power plants are expanded and currently under construction under PAEC and PNRA.[27]

Constituent institutions[edit]

PAEC partnership with CERN[edit]

Pakistan has a long history of participating in an experiments and research undertaking with CERN, and has a long tradition of wonderful physicists who are working around the world.[28] Since the 1960s, Pakistan has been contributing and regularly participating in CERN's project, theoretical and nuclear experiments.[28] A prime example would be Abdus Salam; Salam was the first man to be accredited with all the collaboration with CERN which continues till the present when he convinced CERN to give Pakistan stacks of nuclear emulsion exposed for further study of pions, kaons and antiprotons in the 1960s.[29] Some theoretical physicists from Pakistan had the opportunity to work at CERN through short visits.[28] During the 1980s, some of the experimental physicists from Pakistan, specialising in the technique of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD), also benefited from CERN by exposing the stacks in the beam at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS).[28]

In 2005, CERN awarded PAEC with the ATLAS Supplier Award in 2005, in connection with manufacturing and fabrication of various equipment for CERN.[30]

On 27 June 2011, PAEC and CERN reached an agreement for extending the technical cooperation with CERN's upcoming programmes.[30] CERN's Director-General Rolf-Dieter Heuer personally paid a visit to Pakistan where he spoke for the need of importance of Science in Pakistan and importance of Germany's strategic alliance with Pakistan.[citation needed] The agreement was signed in order to extend an earlier agreement, which came into operation in 2003 between CERN and Pakistan for the supply of manufactured equipment for Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN along with placement of scientists and engineers from Pakistan to assist in the scientific programme of CERN.[30]

With the efforts led by the PAEC, the CERN granted and made Pakistan as its associate member, on 22 June 2014— the first Asian country and second Muslim country after Turkey.[31]

PAEC contribution to Compact Muon Solenoid[edit]

In 1997, Ishfaq Ahmad— chair of the PAEC— reached to CERN to sign a contract between PAEC and CERN after elaborate discussions an in-kind contribution worth one million Swiss francs for the construction of eight magnet supports for the CMS detector.[29]

For CMS, the PAEC built magnet feet and installed 320 Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC), as well as contributing to CMS computing. Several other mechanical components for ATLAS and for the LHC were also built by the PAEC.[32] It was PAEC's efforts that led the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) with CERN's direct cooperation in the area of radioprotection.[32]

PAEC support to Large Hadron Collider[edit]

In 2000, CERN signed another agreement which doubled the Pakistani contribution from one to two million Swiss francs. And with this new agreement Pakistan started construction of the resistive plate chambers required for the CMS muon system. While more recently, a protocol has been signed enhancing Pakistan’s total contribution to the LHC programme to $10 million. Pakistan with all these efforts is already hoping to become an observer state at CERN.[28][29] In 2006 PAEC and CERN agreed on expanded cooperation, including contributions by PAEC valued at 5 million Swiss francs.[33]

World's largest energy experiment at CERN[edit]

The PAEC, partnered with country's leading universities, send a large team of scientists and engineers to CERN to participate in Large Hadron Collider on 10 September 2008.[34] According to the news sources, the team of Pakistani scientists were keenly involved in the involved in the development of the Large Hadron Collider— the world's largest and highest-energyparticle accelerator.[34]

The data of the experiment was available for the Pakistani scientists who would examine the data and results would be accumulated afterwards by the Pakistan physicists.[35]

PAEC Chairs[edit]

Chairmen of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC)

Corporate management[edit]

The PAEC is chaired by the appointed chairperson by the Government of Pakistan as the governmental notification is released.[36] The PAEC's corporate management is organized by the Government who awarded contracts to the potential candidates.[36] Its full-time members are consisted of the appointed Chair; a finance member; and two technical members.[36] Its part-time members are composed of the senior scientists and a chief scientific adviser to the government.[36]

The PAEC's corporate team are constitutionally bound to meet not less than four times every year for the execution of development projects involving nuclear power stations and the generation of electric power.[36] As of current, Muhammad Naeem is the current chairman of the PAEC, appointed at the office since 2015.[37] The PAEC retains its autonomous corporate management and comes under the structure of the National Command Authority.[38] The amendments carried out in 2010, the National Command Authority is now placed again under the Prime Minister of Pakistan.[38] The Chairman directly reports to the Prime Minister's Secretariat for its policy making and confirmation issues.[38]

Corporate management of the PAEC

Individual figures and authorityOfficial designationTerm mandate
Muhammad NaeemChairman, Pakistan Atomic Energy CommissionChairman
Aslam Hayat BhattiMember, PAECMember (Technical)
Mr. Tariq MahmudMember, PAECMember (Fuel Cycle)
Mr. Syed Yusof RazaMember, PAECMember (Power)
Mr.Jamal Ud Din AhmadMember, PAECMember (System)
Mr. Mansoor Ali SheikhFinance Secretary, MOFMember (Finance)
Dr. S. M. Javed AkhtarMember, PAECMember (Science)
Mr. Syed ZiauddinMember, PAECMember (Engineering)
Engr Munawar Ahmad SolehriaMember, PAECMember (Administration)
Dr. Qamar MehboobMember, PAEC(Member Material)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Tahir, Abdul Ghaffar. "IAEA presentation on nuclear power by PAEC"(PDF). IAEA publications, PAEC direct. Retrieved 4 November 2014. 
  2. ^ASO. "Nuclear Power in Pakistan". Australian Safeguards Office. Retrieved 4 November 2014. 
  3. ^staff. "Biomedical engineering at PAEC". PAEC Medical DIvision. Retrieved 4 November 2014. 
  4. ^et. al. staff developer. "Agriculture and Biotechnology". PAEC BIO Division. Retrieved 4 November 2014. 
  5. ^"PAEC and Summer College on Physics". International Nathiagali Summer College. Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. 
  6. ^Ahmad, DSc, Ishfaq (5 October 2003). "CERN and Pakistan: a personal perspective". Switzerland: CERN Courier. Retrieved 4 November 2014. 
  7. ^Editorial (30 September 2014). "Pakistan and CERN". Express Tribune, 2014. Express Tribune. Retrieved 4 November 2014. 
  8. ^ISPR release (5 September 2013). "National Command Authority". Director-General of the Inter-Services Public Relations (ISPR). Retrieved 4 November 2014. 
  9. ^ abChakma, Bhumitra (2009). "Phase I: 1954-71". Pakistan's nuclear weapons(google books). New York, [u.s.a]: Routledge Publications Co. ISBN 1134132549. Retrieved 5 November 2014. 
  10. ^Kapur, Ashok (1987). Pakistan's nuclear development. London: Croom Helm. p. 258. ISBN 0709931018. Retrieved 5 November 2014. 
  11. ^ abcdefghijklmnoNTI st.al. publishers' contributors. "NTI archives: 1953-71"(PDF). United States.: Nuclear Threat Initiatives (NTI). p. 234. Retrieved 5 November 2014. 
  12. ^ abcKhan, Aqeel (7 June 2001). "Development of Nuclear Industry in Pakistan". Professor Aqeel Khan, professor of Political Science at the Ryerson University. Dr. Aqeel Khan of the Ryerson University and the Ryerson University Press. Retrieved 15 August 2011. 
  13. ^FAS. "Multan heavy water reactor". Federation of Atomic Scientists. Retrieved 5 November 2014. 
  14. ^Fox, Liam (2013). Rising Tides: Facing the Challenges of a New Era. London [u.k]: Quercus Co. p. 2000. ISBN 1782067418. Retrieved 6 November 2014. 
  15. ^Nanda, Prakash (2003). Rediscovering Asia : evolution of India's look-east policy (1st ed. in India ed.). New Delhi: Lancer Publ. ISBN 8170622972. 
  16. ^ abcd[Shahid-ur-Rehman] (1999). Long road to Chagai. Islamabad: Printwise publications. ISBN 9789698500009. 
  17. ^ abcKhan, Feroz Hassan (2012). Eating grass the making of the Pakistani bomb. Palo Alto California [u.s.a0: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804784809. Retrieved 6 November 2014. 
  18. ^UNESCO (2010). UNESCO science report 2010. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. ISBN 9231041320. 
  19. ^editor, Karthika Sasikumar, (2012). Organizational cultures and the management of nuclear technology political and military sociology. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 1412848946. Retrieved 7 November 2014. 
  20. ^ abKhurshid, S.J. (15 July 2005). "Nuclear Medical Centers of PAEC"(PDF). The Nucleus. Islamabad, Pakistan: The Nucleus. 42 (1-2): 93–96. ISSN 0029-5698. Retrieved 7 November 2014. 
  21. ^ abcEdited by Turpin Tim; Krishna, V.V. (2007). Science, Technology policy, and Diffusion of Knowledge: Understanding the Dynamic System of Asia-Pacific. Massachusetts [u.s.a0: Edward Elger Publication Co. ISBN 1781008515. Retrieved 7 November 2014. 
  22. ^Acton, Q. Ashton (2013). Isotopes—Advances in Research and Applications. Atlanta, GA, [u.s.a]: ScholarlyEditions. ISBN 1481676989. Retrieved 7 November 2014. 
  23. ^ abet. al. contributors. "Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission". SCIENCE, Pakistan. Retrieved 7 November 2014. 
  24. ^Khan, Shahid Riaz (May 2013). "Investment in Research"(PDF). PakAtom. Retrieved 7 November 2014. 
  25. ^ abINSC. "International Nathiagali Summer College on Physics & Contemporary Needs, Nathiagali, Pakistan". International Nathiagali Summer College on Physics & Contemporary Needs, Nathiagali, Pakistan. Retrieved 7 November 2014. 
  26. ^APP (2 June 2013). "PAEC to produce 8800MW by 2030". The Nation, 2013. The Nation. Retrieved 7 November 2014. 
  27. ^PAEC Nuclear Power. "Nuclear Power". PAEC Nuclear Power. Retrieved 7 November 2014. 
  28. ^ abcdeCERN, Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (6 Oct 2003). "CERN Courier: CERN and Pakistan: a personal perspective"(HTTP). CERN Courier. cerncourier.com. Retrieved 2011. 
  29. ^ abchttp://paki.in/wtf/2008/09/11/pakistans-contribution-to-the-large-hadron-collider-lhc/
  30. ^ abcPAEC (27 June 2011). "Pakistan and CERN signed agreement for Technical Cooperation"(HTTP). PAEC Public Relations and International Press Directorate. Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission's International Relations Directorate. Retrieved 2011
Chaghi Monument, Islamabad Pakistan

As of 2017, nuclear power in Pakistan is provided by 5 commercial nuclear power plants.[1] Pakistan is the first Muslim country in the world to construct and operate civil nuclear power plants.[2] The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), the scientific and nuclear governmental agency, is solely responsible for operating these power plants.[3] As of 2012, the electricity generated by commercial nuclear power plants constitutes roughly ~3.6% of electricity generated in Pakistan, compared to ~62% from fossil fuel, ~33% from hydroelectric power and ~0.3% from coal electricity.[4][5] Pakistan is not a party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty but is a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency.[6][7][8] Pakistan plans on constructing 32 nuclear power plants by 2050.[9]

History[edit]

Professor (and later Nobel laureate) Abdus Salam, as Science Advisor to the President, persuaded President Ayub Khan, to establish Pakistan's first commercial nuclear power reactor, near Karachi.[10][11] Known as Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP), the commercial power plant is a small 137 MWeCANDU reactor, a Canadian pressurized heavy water reactor.

PAEC's Parvez Butt, a nuclear engineer, was project-director. The KANUPP began its operations in 1972, and it was inaugurated by President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Munir Ahmad Khan as PAEC chairman.[12] The KANUPP which is under international safeguards is operated at reduced power. In 1969, France's Commissariat à l'énergie atomique and United Kingdom's British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) contracted with PAEC to provide plutonium and nuclear reprocessing plants in Pakistan. Per agreement, the PAEC engineers were the lead designers of the power plants and nuclear reprocessing facilities. While the BNFL and CEA provided the funds, technical assistance and nuclear materials. The work on projects did not start until 1972, and as a result of India's Operation Smiling Buddha — a surprise nuclear test in 1974 — the BNFL cancelled the projects with PAEC.[citation needed] In 1974, PARR-II Reactor were commissioned, and its project directors were Munir Ahmad Khan and Hafeez Qureshi. The PARR-II is an indigenous reactor that was built under the auspices of PAEC's engineers and scientists.

In 1977, due to pressure exerted by U.S. Secretary of StateHenry Kissinger, the CEA cancelled the projects with PAEC immediately. Without the assistance of United Kingdom and France, the PAEC engineers completed the plutonium nuclear reprocessing plant — New Labs — and the plutonium reactor — Khushab Nuclear Complex. Both power plants are commercial power plants control by PAEC. In 1989, People's Republic of China signed an agreement with Pakistan to provide 300 MWeCHASNUPP-I power plant under the IAEA safeguards. In 1990, both France and Soviet Union considered the Pakistan's request to provide the commercial nuclear power plants under the IAEA safeguards.[13] But, after the American Ambassador to Pakistan's Robert Oakley expressed U.S. displeasure at the agreements between the Soviet Union and France, the contracts were cancelled.[14] By the 2000, China had expanded its contract with PAEC and is currently[when?] assisting in construction of III, and IV power plants. II was completed in April 2011. Due to its growing electricity demands, the Pakistan Government ordered PAEC to set up nuclear power plants in the country. According to PAEC, the goal is to produce 8800 MW electricity by the 2030. Prime minister Yousaf Raza Gillani announced the Pakistan national energy policy in 2010 while the feasibility report was submitted in Prime Minister's Secretariat — the official residence of prime minister of Pakistan. The PAEC are currently planning to lead the construction of KANUPP-II nuclear power plant — a 1100 MWe power plant — and the KANUPP-III — 1100 MWe. While the commercial plants will be indigenously built, the preliminary work is put on hold as of 2009. In 2010, the Nuclear Power Fuel Complex (PNPFC) — a nuclear reprocessing power plant — was commissioned. PAEC led the construction, designing, and maintenance of the facility, while China and IAEA provided funds to the facility. On 26 November 2013 prime minister Nawaz Sharif performed groundbreaking ceremony for two nuclear power plants with a combined capacity of 2200 MW near Karachi.

Pakistan nuclear power reactors[edit]

As of today, only four commercial nuclear power plants are currently operating. The following list provides information about current and future commercial nuclear power plants.

Nuclear power reactorsTypeLocationNet capacityConstruction startConnected to gridCommercial operation
CHASNUPP-I[15]PWR[15]Chasma, Punjab Province[15]300 MWe[15]1 August 1993[15]13 June 2000[15]15 September 2000[15]
CHASNUPP-II[16]PWR[16]Chasma, Punjab Province300 MWe[16]28 December 2005[16]14 March 2011[16]20 May 2011[16]
CHASNUPP-III[17]PWR[17]Chasma, Punjab Province[17]340 MWe[17]28 April 2009[1][17]17 Oct 2016[18]28 December 2016[19]
CHASNUPP-IV[17]PWR[17]Chasma, Punjab Province[17]340 MWe[17]2011[1]2017[1]N/A
CHASNUPP-VPWRChasma, Punjab Province1000 MWe20142020N/A
KANUPP-I[20]PHWRParadise Point, Karachi, Sindh Province90 MWe[20]1 August 1966[20]18 October 1971[20]7 December 1972[20]
KANUPP-II[21][22]PWR[21][22]Paradise Point, Karachi, Sindh Province[21][22]1100 MWe[21][22]Construction has started, since 2013.[22][23]2020[21]2020
KANUPP-III[24]PWR[24]Paradise Point, Karachi, Sindh Province[24]1100 MWe[24]Construction has started, along with KANUP III since 2013[25]2020[25]2020[25]
Muzaffargarh Nuclear Power ComplexPWRMuzaffargarh, Punjab1000 MWePAEC reportedly plans to install three Chinese nuclear reactors at Muzaffargarh and the site is now being prepared.[26]20202020

International co-operation[edit]

People's Republic of China[edit]

Main article: People's Republic of China – Pakistan relations

The People's Republic of China has been a strong vocal and avid supporter of Pakistan's nuclear power generation programme from the early on. The history of Chinese-Pakistan cooperation dates back to the 1970s when Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, as prime minister, first visited China. The strong academic interaction between Chinese and Pakistan scientists was begun in the 1970s. In 1986, the scientists from KRL and military engineers of Pakistan Army Engineering Corps built a HEU enrichment plant in Hanzhong province of PRC, and provided technical assistance to China in weapon-grade centrifuge technology for Chinese nuclear weapons. From the 1980s to the present, China has contracted with Pakistan to use of civil and electricity purpose use of nuclear technology.

As of 1990 contract, the second commercial nuclear power plant is CHASNUPP-I in Punjab—a 325 MWe PWR—supplied by China's CNNC under IAEA safeguards. The main part of the plant was designed by Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (SNERDI), based on Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant. The commercial nuclear power plant began its operations May 2000. In 2005, China expanded its contract with Pakistan, and vowed to build more nuclear power plants in Pakistan. Construction of its twin, CHASNUPP-II, started in December 2005. It is reported to cost PkR 51.46 billion (US$860 million, with $350 million of this financed by China). In a meeting with IAEA, an IAEA safeguard agreement with PAEC and IAEA was signed in 2006, and the grid connection is expected in spring of 2011. The enriched fuel takes place in Pakistan's PNPFC facility, which is also under IAEA safeguards.

In 2005, both Pakistan government and the Chinese government adopted an Energy Security Plan, calling for a huge increase in generating capacity to more than 160,000 MWe by 2030. Pakistan Government plans for lifting nuclear capacity to 8800 MWe, 900 MWe of it by 2015 and a further 1500 MWe by 2020.[27]

Plans included four further Chinese reactors of 300 MWe each and seven of 1000 MWe, all PWR. There were tentative plans for China to build two 1000 MWe PWR units at Karachi as KANUPP II and III, but China then in 2007 deferred development of its CNP-1000 type which is the only one able to be exported. However, Last November 2012, China rolled out its new advanced 1000 MW pressurised water nuclear power reactor, ACPR-1000 at the Hi-Tech Fair in Shenzhen. This reactor was "independently" developed by China Guangdong Nuclear Power Corporation with full IPR and made its debut at the 13th China Hi-Tech Fair, according to the official media. Since this reactor has been developed by China independently without the involvement of foreign suppliers, it is quite likely that China will export this reactor to Pakistan. PAEC is now currently preparing reports and planning to set up small but more commercial nuclear power plants indigenously.

In June 2008, the Pakistan Government announced plans to build commercial nuclear power plants III and IV commercial nuclear power plants at Chashma, Punjab Province, each with 320–340 MWe and costing PKR 129 billion, 80 billion of this from international sources, principally China. A further agreement for China's help with the project was signed in October 2008, and given prominence as a counter to the US–India agreement shortly preceding it. Cost quoted then was US$1.7 billion, with a foreign loan component of $1.07 billion.

In March 2009, SNERDI announced that it was proceeding with design of CHASNUPP-III and IV, with China Zhongyuan Engineering as the general contractor. The PAEC said Beijing was financing 85% of the US$1.6 billion project. Contracts for CHASNUPP-I and II were signed in 1990 and 2000, before 2004 when China joined the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), which maintains an embargo on sales of nuclear equipment to Pakistan, but there are questions about China's supply of Chasma-3 and 4. On 24 September 2010, China informed the IAEA that it will implement an agreement with Pakistan on the export of two nuclear reactors for Islamabad's Chashma nuclear complex. Beijing has said that the reactor deal is part of a 2003 agreement between the two countries, a claim many have questioned, though Germany has accepted.[28] These will be the third and fourth reactors at the complex. According to the Chinese communication to the IAEA, the reactors will be placed under international safeguards.[29] Concerns have been expressed over the lack the safety features incorporated into the Chashma-3 and Chashma-4 reactors, which are alleged to use a design which is not considered safe enough to build in China.[30]

In March 2013, Pakistan and China agreed to build a 1000 MW CHASNUPP-5 at Chashma Nuclear Power Complex.[31] In July 2013, it was announced that Pakistani officials were considering approval of KANUPP-2, a 1,000 megawatt reactor to be built with assistance from China.[32][33]

France[edit]

In May 2009, France agreed to cooperate with Pakistan on nuclear safety, which Pakistan's Foreign Minister called a 'significant development' related to the transfer of civilian nuclear technology to Pakistan. But later a spokesman for the French presidency was careful to rein in expectations, saying Mr Sarkozy had "confirmed France was ready, within the framework of its international agreements, to co-operate with Pakistan in the field of nuclear safety."[34] In October 2013, French Ambassador Philippe Thiebaud said "my country is ready to consider the request for enhancing civil nuclear cooperation in line with international obligations."[35]

United States[edit]

In a U.S.–Pakistan strategic dialogue on 24 March 2010, Pakistan pressed for a civil nuclear cooperation deal similar to that with India.[36] One analyst suggested that such a deal was unrealistic at present but might be possible in 10–15 years.[37]

Japan[edit]

In 2011, Dr. Irfan Yusuf Shami, the Director-General (Disarmament) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Pakistan and Makyo Maya Gawa, the Director-General of Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Department of the JapaneseMinistry of Foreign Affairs signed an agreement for nuclear non-proliferation in Tokyo. Both countries agreed on maintaining stability in South Asia.[38]

In 2011, during the state visit of PresidentAsif Zardari, Pakistan sought civil nuclear power cooperation with Japan, similarly to a previous deal between Japan and India. According to the Jang News group, the Japanese government refused the deal with Pakistan.[39] According to the Pakistan Media, the Pakistan officials were highly disappointed with Japanese denial. On the other hand, Japanese officials were left disappointed as Pakistan had denied the Japanese request to support Japan's candidacy for permanent seat for the United Nations Security Council.

Fuel cycle[edit]

The government has set a target of producing 350 tonnes (U3O8)per year from 2015 to meet one third of anticipated requirements then. Low grade Ore is known in central Punjab Province at Bannu Basin and Suleman Range.

A small (15,000 SWU/yr) uranium centrifuge enrichment plant at Kahuta has been operated by the KRL since 1984 and does not have any apparent civil use. It was expanded threefold about 1991. A newer plant is reported to be at Gadwal which is operated by PAEC. The plant is not under safeguards of IAEA.

In 2006, the PAEC announced that it was preparing to set up separate and purely civil conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication plants as a new US$1.2 billion Nuclear Power Fuel Complex which would be under IAEA safeguards and managed separately from existing facilities. At least the enrichment plant would be built at Chak Jhumra, Faisalabad, in the Punjab and have a 150,000 SWU/yr capacity in five years — about 2013, then be expanded in 150,000 SWU increments to be able to supply one third of the enrichment requirements for a planned 8800 MWe generating capacity by 2030.

Radioactive wastes management[edit]

The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) is responsible for the radioactive waste management. From 1972, the PAEC has undertaken to establish the safety objectives, management, and radioactive waste management.[40] In 2004, the PNRA issued guidelines for the management of nuclear and radioactive waste management in nuclear and medical research centers under PAEC.[41] In 2010, the PNRA issued regulatory policy on radioactive waste materials, and Pakistan lawmakers presented the regulatory policy in Pakistan Parliament. The Parliament passed the PNRA regulatory policy unanimously, making it into laws.[42]

The PNRA proposed new Waste Management offices to control of the radiation and radioactive materials. The Waste Management Centres are proposed for Karachi, Rawalpindi, Nilore, Lahore and Chashma. Used fuel is currently stored at each reactor in pools. Longer-term dry storage at each site is proposed. The question of future reprocessing remains open. A National Repository for low- and intermediate-level wastes is due to be commissioned by 2015.

Nuclear reprocessing[edit]

See also: Pakistan Atomic Research Reactor § PARR-III Reactor (New-Labs), and Khushab Nuclear Complex

The country also has operated one indigenous reprocessing plant, built by PAEC, which was known as the New Labs — outside PINSTECH, Nilore, near Islamabad.[43] The PAEC had contracted with British BNFL for a reprocessing facility which was cancelled in 1974. It was built under the leadership of Mr. Munir Ahmad Khan[44] The plant became functional in the early 1980s, and it is not under IAEA inspection. The second nuclear reprocessing plant was also started by PAEC under Munir Ahmad Khan, in 1976, at Chashma, under a contract agreement with France However, France cancelled the agreement for the said plant under US influence in August 1978 .[45] In 2006, the PAEC started work another nuclear fuel fabrication plant — Pakistan Nuclear Power Fuel Complex — located 175 kilometers south near Islamabad. An indigenous Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Complex at Kundian, known as Kundian Nuclear Fuel Complex (KNFC), already exists which was built by PAEC under Munir Ahmad Khan and completed by 1980. Kundian Nuclear Fuel Complex makes nuclear fuel for KANUPP. However, the 2006 PNPFC project is being financed by the joint Sino-Pak Nuclear Technology Consortium, and the PAEC is leading the designing and construction of the plant. It will be under safeguards but KNFC is not under safeguards.[46] The Pakistan Nuclear Power Fuel Complex is under the IAEA safeguards and inspections as the IAEA also contributed in the mega project financially.

Radiation control[edit]

Main articles: Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority and China National Nuclear Corporation

The PAEC's directorate for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NSRC) was responsible for the radiation and high radioactive material control in the country. However, in 2001, with the establishment of the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA), the responsibilities were shifted to PNRA. In 2003, the responsibilities and agency's goals were expanded, as PNRA were given the status of an executive agency. The PNRA oversees reactor safety and security, reactor licensing and renewal, radioactive material safety, security and licensing, and spent fuel management (storage, security, recycling, and disposal).[47] The PNRA closely work with Chinese CNNC, and is frequently visited by Chinese staff as its technical advisers.

Nuclear accidents[edit]

Main article: Nuclear power accidents by country

On 18–19 October 2011, the KANUPP Karachi nuclear power plant imposed a seven-hour emergency after heavy water leaked from a feeder pipe to the reactor. The leakage took place during a routine maintenance shut down, and the emergency was lifted seven hours later, after the affected area was isolated.[48]

Industry and academic[edit]

Main article: Pakistan Nuclear Society

The Pakistan Nuclear Society (PNS) is a scientific and educational society that has both industry and academic members.[49] The organization publishes large amount of scientific literature on nuclear technology on several journals. The PNS also allied itself with American Nuclear Society (ANS), European Nuclear Society (ENS), Indian Nuclear Society (INS), Korean Nuclear Society (KNS), Chinese Nuclear Society (CNS), Hungarian Nuclear Society (HNS), and the Spanish Nuclear Society (SNS).[50] The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission also published large sums of publication, and published a quarterly magazine — The Nucleus.[51] The PAEC's academic scientists and engineers also publishes the newsletter — The PakAtom — concerning on nuclear technology and lobbying for the commercial nuclear power plants.[52]

Academic research[edit]

See also: Project-706 § Proposals, and Pakistan Atomic Research Reactor

The academic research on nuclear technology began in 1956, with the establishment of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. In 1965, United States provided a 10 MWresearch reactor – Pakistan Atomic Research Reactor-I (PARR) – to Pakistan. The PARR-Reactor consists of three research reactors with a single nuclear particle accelerator. The first reactor was supplied by the U.S. government in 1965 and it is operated by the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH). In 1969, the Center for Nuclear Studies was established, and it began its research in a small reactor that was provided by the PAEC. In 1989, the PAEC had built another small research reactor, known as Pakistan Atomic Research Reactor-II reactor. The PARR-II reactor is an indigenously built reactor by the PAEC, and is under IAEA safeguards since IAEA had funded this mega-project.

In 1986, another "multipurpose" heavy water reactor, a 50 MWepressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) near Khushab, was built. Known as Khushab-I, it went critical and started its operations in April 1998. The complex is evidently for producing weapons-grade plutonium, isotope production and nuclear reprocessing. A similar or possibly larger heavy water reactor has been under construction at Khushab since about 2002. Khushab is reported[by whom?] to be making demands upon the country's limited uranium resources. Reprocessing of weapon-grade material is reported[by whom?] to take place at Chashma Nuclear Complex, 80 km west.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^Nuclear power in Pakistan, Dr. Zia H. Siddiqui and Dr. I.H. Qureshi, pp.31–33.
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  11. ^Siddiqui, Dr. Zia; Dr. Iqbal Hussain Qureshi (13 October 2005). "Nuclear power in Pakistan"(PDF). The Nucleus. Nilore, Islamabad: The Nucleus PINSTECH publication. 42 (1–2): 63–66. ISSN 0029-5698. Archived from the original(PDF) on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 2011. 
  12. ^"Pakistan Makes Achievements in Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy". Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 27 October 1979. Archived from the original on 18 September 2011. 
  13. ^"Soviet Ambassador Says Soviets Might Sell Pakistan A Nuclear Plant". 26 February 1990. Archived from the original on 8 November 2010. Retrieved 2011. 
  14. ^Nizami, Majid; Salim Bukhari (26 February 1990). "Paper Says US To Object To Nuclear Plant Deal". The Nation. Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory: Nawa-i-Waqt Media Group. pp. 1–2. Archived from the original on 8 November 2010. Retrieved 2011. 
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  16. ^ abcdef(IAEA), International Atomic Energy Agency. "CHASNUPP-II". IAEA. IAEA. Retrieved 2011-04-08. 
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  18. ^Pakistan’s 4th nuclear power plant of 340 MW starts operation
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  21. ^ abcde(PAEC), Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. "KANUPP-II". Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. 
  22. ^ abcdeHashim, Asad (31 January 2009). "Plan to establish 1,000MW KANUPP-II put on hold". Dawn Newspapers. Karachi, Sindh: Hameed Haroon of Dawn Group of Newspapers. Retrieved 2011. 
  23. ^Asad Hashim, Plan to establish 1,000MW Kanupp-II put on hold DAWN Media Group.
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  26. ^Pakistan in Talks to Acquire 3 Nuclear Plants From China
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  31. ^China, Pakistan reach controversial deal on nuclear power plant
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